SESS Metacognition Resource V1

Topics: Educational psychology, Cognition, Learning Pages: 76 (16956 words) Published: December 10, 2014
Special Education Support Service
‘Equality of Challenge Initiative’

Metacognition for the classroom and beyond:
Differentiation and support for learners

Version I, September 2009

Table of Contents
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..3 1. Section 1: A brief introduction to metacognition........................................5 1.1 What is metacognition? ...............................................................................5 1.2 Why is knowledge of metacognition important for the teacher? ..................9 1.3 Why are metacognitive skills important for the learner? ............................10 1.4 How do metacognitive skills relate to Assessment for Learning? ..............12 1.5 How can metacognitive skills training benefit learners with SEN and exceptionally able learners? ............................................................................13 1.5.1 Learners with SEN..............................................................................13 1.5.2 Exceptionally able learners. ................................................................19 1.5.3 Learners with Dual Exceptionality .......................................................20

2. Section 2: Metacognition in the classroom and beyond ...........................22 2.1 Four ways to promote general metacognitive awareness..........................22 2.2 Higher-order thinking and questioning skills – a metacognitive approach 28 2.2.1 What are higher-order (HOT) thinking skills? ......................................28 2.2.2 What is Bloom’s Taxonomy? ..............................................................29 2.2.3 The six levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy...................................................30 2.2.4 How can Bloom’s Taxonomy be used?...............................................33 2.2.5 Using HOT skills to develop questioning.............................................35 2.3 The SQ4R method of reading and studying ..............................................41 2.4 K-W-L charts .............................................................................................47 2.5 PMI – Plus, Minus, Interesting...................................................................53 2.6 Concept Maps ...........................................................................................57 2.7 Self-reflection and evaluation techniques for learners ...............................61 2.7.1 Self-report questionnaires for informal assessment of metacognitive awareness ...................................................................................................68

3. Applying metacognitive strategies in the school context.........................76

2

Introduction
Every so often an idea in education “comes of age”; its relevance to learning becomes apparent and it endures beyond policy and research trends. Metacognition is not a new phenomenon – we have had the capacity to think about our own thinking long before we gave it a name – but in the past 30 years a sustained programme of research has focussed on this cognitive process, and while we still have much to learn, the positive impacts that metacognitive skills can have for the learner are well-documented.

Why are metacognitive skills so desirable in our learners? Pupils with good metacognitive skills are flexible in their approaches to learning. They possess a number of strategies to best cope with the information they need to interact with, and can assess which ones to use at the most appropriate times. Engagement with metacognitive learning techniques encourages pupils to see learning as a process, and one in which they can have input. The learner is at the centre of the activity, directing it, rather than standing on the sidelines. Ideally in this way, pupils begin to see how they can take control of their own learning and be agents of their own success.

This pilot resource is part of the ‘Equality of Challenge’ initiative that the Special...
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