Social Cognitive Theory

Topics: Educational psychology, Psychology, Albert Bandura Pages: 12 (4438 words) Published: March 7, 2011
Social Cognitive Theory
HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF SCT
CORE CONCEPTS WITHIN SCT
TELEVISION: EDUCATOR'S FRIEND OR FOE?
IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION
Social cognitive theory (SCT) refers to a psychological model of behavior that emerged primarily from the work of Albert Bandura (1977; 1986). Initially developed with an emphasis on the acquisition of social behaviors, SCT continues to emphasize that learning occurs in a social context and that much of what is learned is gained through observation. SCT has been applied broadly to such diverse areas of human functioning as career choice, organizational behavior, athletics, and mental and physical health. SCT also has been applied extensively by those interested in understanding classroom motivation, learning, and achievement (Pajares, 1996; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994; 1998). SCT rests on several basic assumptions about learning and behavior. One assumption concerns triadic reciprocal-ity, or the view that personal, behavioral, and environmental factors influence one another in a bidirectional, reciprocal fashion. That is, a person's on-going functioning is a product of a continuous interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and contextual factors. For instance, classroom learning is shaped by factors within the academic environment, especially the reinforcements experienced by oneself and by others. At the same time, learning is affected by students' own thoughts and self-beliefs and their interpretation of the classroom context. A closely related assumption within SCT is that people have an agency or ability to influence their own behavior and the environment in a purposeful, goal-directed fashion (Bandura, 2001). This belief conflicts with earlier forms of behaviorism that advocated a more rigorous form of environmental determinism. SCT does not deny the importance of the environment in determining behavior, but it does argue that people can also, through forethought, self-reflection, and self-regulatory processes, exert substantial influence over their own outcomes and the environment more broadly. A third assumption within SCT is that learning can occur without an immediate change in behavior or more broadly that learning and the demonstration of what has been learned are distinct processes. One reason for this separation is that SCT also assumes that learning involves not just the acquisition of new behaviors, but also of knowledge, cognitive skills, concepts, abstract rules, values, and other cognitive constructs. This division of learning and behavior is a shift from the position advocated by behavioral theories that defined learning stridently as a change in the form or frequency of behavior. It also means that students can learn but not demonstrate that learning until motivated to do so. HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF SCT

Born in 1925, Albert Bandura was trained and began his career in the mid-twentieth century when explanations of human functioning, including classroom learning, were dominated by behavioral models advocated by researchers such as B. F. Skinner, Clark Hull, Kenneth Spence, and Edward Tolman. In this context, Bandura, along with his students and colleagues, initiated a series of studies designed to examine social explanations for why and when children displayed aggressive behaviors. These studies demonstrated the value of modeling for acquiring novel behaviors and provided initial evidence for the separation of learning and performance. They also indicated the importance of the learner's perceptions of the environment generally, of the person modeling a behavior specifically, and of the learner's expectations regarding the consequences of behavior. In doing so, findings from this systematic research contradicted assumptions within behavioral models that learning was the result of trial and error learning or that changes in behavior were due primarily to the consequences of one's own actions. Children learn by observing others.JENNY ACHESON/RISER/GETTY...

Bibliography: Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248–287.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.
Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Linares, L. O., Rosbruch, N., Stern, M. B., Edwards, M. E., Walker, G., Abikoff, H. B., et al. (2005). Developing cognitive-social-emotional competencies to enhance academic learning. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 405–417.
Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Human learning (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, MJ: Pearson Education.
Pajares, F. (1996). Self–efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66, 543–578.
Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36, 89–101.
Schunk, D. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 71–86.
Schunk, D. (2001). Social–cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In B. Zimmerman & D. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 125–151). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schunk, D. (2008). Learning theories: An educational perspective (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schunk, D., & Zimmerman, B. (Eds.). (1994). Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schunk, D., & Zimmerman, B. (Eds.) (1998). Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self–reflective practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Zimmerman, B. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self–regulation: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 13–29). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (1996). Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Zimmerman, B., & Schunk, D. (Eds.). (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Zimmerman, B., & Schunk, D. (2003). Albert Bandura: The scholar and his contributions to educational psychology. In B. Zimmerman and D. Schunk (Eds.), Educational psychology: A century to contributions (pp. 431–457). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory Essay
  • Cognitive Theory Essay
  • Essay on Cognitive Learning Theory
  • Essay about Theories help explain drunk driving
  • Cognitive Theory and Self Esteem Essay
  • Cognitive, Social and Language Development Essay
  • Essay on Explain the Social Learning Theory
  • Essay about Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free
Barriers in Communication - 1064 Words | HD Edge of the Empire (2010) | [P] 01006a800016e000 nsp