Running head: PRINCPLES OF CONSRTUCTIVISM AND ITS APPLICATION
(a) Discuss four principles of Constructivism theory.
(b) Describe, using appropriate examples, how you would adapt the selected learning theory in executing four of the central task of teaching in your classroom.
‘The task of the excellent teacher is to stimulate “apparently ordinary” people to unusual effort. The tough problem is not in identifying winners: it is in making winners out of ordinary people (K. Patricia Cross).’ The constructivism theory is closely related to this quote as according to Brunning, Schraw & Ronning, constructivism is a psychological and philosophical perspective contending that individuals form and construct much of what they learn and understand. One of the first things a teacher must do when considering how to teach students is to acknowledge that each student does not learn in the same way. This means that the teacher must use a variety of strategies such as collaborative learning and others to ensure that each student is learning the intended content. It is for this reason that there are guided principles of learning theories to guide the attitude to teaching by the teacher. One such learning theory is the constructivism theory. It is obvious that a teacher cannot reach every student on the same level during one lesson, but implementing a variety of learning styles or strategies throughout the subject will be of great benefit to both the students and the teacher. This will ultimately allow all the students to have the chance to learn in at least one way that matches their learning style. The teachers must also know the central task of teaching in order to carry out a good lesson. Firstly, with the constructivist theory, students must construct their own learning and knowledge in their minds. This can be done if the teacher gives the students learning materials for them to discover another aspect of the material given. Therefore, students will learn through discovery which is also called discovery learning which is a part of Piaget’s learning theory. In other words, students will learn best by trying to make sense of something on their own with the teacher as a guide to help them along the way. There are a number of guided principles that guide the constructivism learning theory that is linked to the central task of teaching. Four of the central task of teaching includes listening to or understanding students’ thinking, understanding students’ experiences, organizing subject matter or planning for teaching and creating a safe learning environment for students. All the central tasks of teaching are very important for learning to take place in any classroom. There are also principles of the constructivism theory that will also be discussed which includes the fact that teachers should pose problems of emerging relevance to the students, seek and value students point of view, adapt curriculum to address students’ suppositions and also assess students learning in the context of teaching. Despite others’ view on constructivism, there are guided principles of the constructivism theory and there are also central task of teaching that are deemed important for teachers to know and practice. Secondly, taking a deep insight of the constructivism theory, it can be said that within the constructivism theory, the emphasis is on the learner rather than the teacher. Therefore, it is the learner who interacts with his or her environment and as a result gains an understanding of its features and characteristics. The students’ will construct their own conceptualisations and finds his/her own solutions to problems, mastering sovereignty and liberty. C. Rogers, one of the advocates of empirical learning the tenets of which are inextricably related to, and harmonious with, those of constructivism made the distinction between cognitive learning, which he stated is,...
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Dale H. Schunk , (2004) Learning Theories An Education PerspectivePearson Education Inc.,Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
Roger H. Bruning, Gregory. J. Schraw, Royce R. Ronning Bruning, Roger H. (1999)
Cognitive Psychology and Instruction Merrill. the University of Michigan. Upper Saddle River, N.J
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Collier MacMillan Publishers.
Trowbridge, Leslie W. & Bybee, Rodger W.(1990) Becoming a secondary school science teacher. Merrill Pub. Co. (Columbus)
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