Topics: Geert Hofstede, Marketing, Cross-cultural communication Pages: 7 (2482 words) Published: November 21, 2005
Marketing Communication Mix
Pickton and Broderick (2001) cite Kotler et al. in defining IMC as "the concept under which a company carefully integrates and co-ordinates its many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent and compelling message about the organization and its products" (p.16) Consumers all over the world became more demanding and accurate in their choice. It has sharpened the competition between the companies, making the latter fight severely for their existing and potential customers. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to identify significant problems that might be an obstacle in communicating with young people from Europe to be able to work out successful marketing campaigns. The growing importance of European youth market is caused by several reasons: •Teenagers' tastes and preferences are different from those of their older generations; •Young people's values have been seriously transformed since the past decade; •Economic situation in the major European countries favors average income increase of the family, which impacts the income of a teen aged child; •Youngsters become more and more independent as they pursue the goal of getting a part-time job to provide additional needs for themselves. Thus, it increases their personal purchasing power; •Youth's perception of the world is different from their previous generations. Therefore, particular communication tools are needed to appeal to their feelings and tastes.

Regarding all the reasons stated above, it is necessary to distinguish two sets of factors that might influence marketing programs for young people across Europe these includes objective factors and subjective ones. As for the first group, it comprises size of a family, income level, and social status to some extent. They are called objective, cause they are usually hard to influence, and are quite clear set. As for the second group, it is much broader. It consists of cultural factors, internal values, beliefs and life-styles. All those factors are going to be discussed more thoroughly in the subsequent paragraphs.

In order to understand the process of marketing communication, it is reasonable to apply Schramm model of communication. (Schramm W. (1954)

This is a circular model, which helps to explain how our potential customers get the information a firm transmits to them. Taking the example of European youth market, the model will take the following format: Message a firm is trying to send: products or services we produce are worth buying; they can substantially increase the level of your satisfaction. Encoder: mass-media (Mass-media is the best means of reaching the customers, as it embraces the largest audience and matches different levels of customers' availability). Interpreter: friends, relatives, reference groups, opinions and declarations of famous or well-respected people in the media, social norms and beliefs that somehow explain or predispose our attitude or perception towards the message. For example, if the commercial states that soda can be healthy, the member of a reference group, specifically family doctor, will deny the statement, thus influencing targeted audience to interpret the message differently. Decoder: TV, periodicals, radio etc. Those are specific means that bring the information, message and decode it for us. In order for the process of communication to be efficient, it is necessary for marketing specialist to think thoroughly on the each link of this circular chain.

Before discussing communication mix programs for youth market in Europe, it is necessary to identify the components of these programs in order to be able to analyze each of them separately. Thus, a communication program is comprised of four main elements: advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and public relations (PR) (Cateora, 1990). These all components are usually used in a complex way, which gives a chance to talk about integrated...

References: 1. Busenitz L. (1996) "A Cross-Cultural Cognitive Model of New Venture Creation" In Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, vol.20
2. Cateora P
3. Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions (France). (2003) Available: (Accessed: October 17, 2005)
4. Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions (UK)
5. Hofstede, G.(1991) "Cultures and organizations: software of the mind". McGraw-Hill: London
6. Kotler P., Armstrong G., Saunders J
7. McSweeney B. (2002) "Hofstede 's Model of National Cultural Differences and their Consequences: a Triumph of Faith – a Failure of Analysis." In Human Relations, vol.55, #1, pp. 89-118
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