The purpose of this report is to research theories, frameworks and the different aspects relating to the effects of inclusive learning and teaching of disabled learners We continually face challenges in supporting the learning of our students in our changing world. The curriculum that frames our learning and teaching practices are developed from research and learning theories. Expectations emphasise knowing how to learn and how to understand, access and use information gained. In the first half of the 20th century two theories dominated the way we learnt, Pavlov and Skinner were influential figures with their extensive research largely based on laboratory studies of animals. Skinners operant conditioning theories (Baldwin and Baldwin 1986) uses a mixture of positive and negative reinforcement to control learner’s behaviours. Operant conditioning is such a fundamental aspect of learning and is also effective in behaviour management. This is achieved entirely through verbal feedback, for both positive and negative reinforcement, on a negative this theory focused on observable behaviour and less on what learners gained in knowledge. In the middle of the 20th century research began to look closely into acquisition of knowledge, although the teacher still played the most active role. In the1970’s research moved away from laboratories and into more natural learning situations, this showed learners playing an active and strategic role in their own learning. Piaget’s theory had a huge impact on teaching methods a this time and remains one of the most important cognitive development theories in education to date, although further evidence suggests Piaget underestimated the ability of infants and children as well as not accounting for individual differences. Constructivist theory works well with disabled learners, due to the fact that the learners do not seem so overwhelmed and frustrated and it aids in motivating the students. Teachers should prioritize and teach the most important facts relating to key ideas, the main aim and purpose of implementing this theory is intended to not cause undue stress or reason for the learners to feel overwhelmed with having to take on board and memorize too much information at any given time. The teacher should utilise techniques such as brainstorming in order to access and asses the skills and abilities gained by the students on an on-going basis, Students can track their own progress and errors and gain feelings of confidence and success. Although the behaviourist theories are positive in that they suggest breaking down tasks into small manageable segments, the best teaching practices tend to integrate ideas from all of the theory principles and integrate them to produce a more successful outcome. Research enables us to understand how learning occurs, thus enabling the teachers to select and design the curriculum and look at the learning environments and the strategies for teaching and assessing those which support disabled learning. Knowing how to support the learning process for our students and implementing and identifying the theories and principles concerned, allows us to create and enjoy rich learning and life experiences for all those involved. Learning is central to economic success … Those who are disadvantaged educationally are also disadvantaged economically and socially; equity and viability dictate that all should have the opportunity to succeed. (Kennedy 1997:15)
People with disabilities experience stigma being attached to them which can on occasions be more detrimental and painful than the disability itself. Many children are kept at home or are institutionalised in one form or another; this tends to occur due to the lack of support for families and the feeling of worthlessness. The stigma attached to disabled people such as being frowned upon and seen as being a hindrance and a drain on society can form such opinions as for example ”there’s...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document