the comparision between Clt and Alm

Topics: Educational psychology, Learning, Critical thinking Pages: 12 (3065 words) Published: October 25, 2013
Nurse Education Today, Volume 25, Issue 7, Pages 502-508

Approaches to teaching: current opinions and related research Published by Elsevier
Maggi Banning , B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. PGDE, EdD, SRN, SCM.

Approaches to Teaching

The changing face of teaching has moved away from didacticism to learning facilitation and with this is the need for teachers to play different roles and use new techniques (Griffin, 2002, Jarvis, 2002). Three main styles of teaching are propounded; didactic, socratic and facilitative. The diversity of styles provides a degree of flexibility that allows one to alter the task of teaching whether it is teacher-centred or student-centred. Jarvis (2002) views teaching as both an art and a science. In doing so, one can combine the authoritarian didacticism approach with the democratic facilitator’s approach with no limit on the combinations.

The lecture is “probably the most frequently employed teaching technique despite all the criticisms that have been levelled against it” (Jarvis, 1983 p 117). It is “an economical means of transmitting factual information to a large audience, although there is no guarantee that effective learning will result” (Walkin, 2000, p 55). The didactic approach to teaching primarily involves lecturing and is essentially teacher-centred (Entwistle, 1997). Fry, Ketteridge & Marshall (2003) reminds us that although the lecture remains a major method of teaching in adult and continuing education, and is still recognised “as a


Nurse Education Today, Volume 25, Issue 7, Pages 502-508
useful teaching tool” as it can provide a framework of ideas and theories but it needs to be complemented by interaction and adult-oriented strategies due to attention span and lack of participation.

Didacticism raises numerous constraints which involve rote learning, learning by note taking, and potential boredom as the approach limits student participation and reflection. Many traditional lecturers continue to use the lecture as a means of teaching, especially when the subject is new to the majority of students or if the students are teacher dependent, anxious or disorganised as learners (Walkin, 2000).

Radical pedagogies have challenged conventional classroom practice where the student is the recipient of new knowledge and the teacher is the knower. Teaching is “no longer seen as imparting knowledge and doing things to the student, but is redefined as facilitation of self-directed learning” (Tight, 1996, p 26). In an attempt to alter this position, the teacher can use problem-solving techniques and vicarious learning strategies to encourage students to articulate and theorize what they know already in relation to the meaning of their experiences and their interpretation (Preece & Griffin, 2002). Sharing of experiences allows students to critically think and undertake structured reflection on how the events may influence their personal circumstances. This facilitative approach to teaching teases out previous learning and helps students ‘make sense’ of experiences in relation to real world events (Gregory, 2002). Experiential learning reflects the ontology of the learner and can impact on both propositional and process knowledge forms


Nurse Education Today, Volume 25, Issue 7, Pages 502-508
(Knowles et al., 1998) and in doing so, make a positive contribution to the students’ learning, motivation and their ability to become self-directive.

In order to facilitate learning, teachers must be competent, possess self-esteem, hold authority within the classroom, show compassion, respect for individuals and be flexible in the range and style of teaching methods. They can be challenged and should be able to form relationships between themselves and the students (Freeth & Parker, 2003). To be effective facilitators, teachers need to be accomplished in the educational attributes they may want students to acquire.

The “qualities that exist in the personal relationship between...

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