Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations
Cross Cultural Communication
Global Leadership and Organisational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program
List of Tables
shows the advancements of Hall's theory over time. The table is based on (Hall, 1976) (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004) (Trompenaars & Hempden- Turner, 1997).....................................................................................5
List of Figures
shows Hall's Iceberg model in a simplified way. The figure is based on (Hofstede, 1997, S. 57) and the from Hofstede's model derived cultural layer model of (Trompenaars & Hempden- Turner, 1997)...........................................3
shows an example of a perception illusion created by (Hill, 1915)..................... 4
Through the proceeding process of globalization companies undergo a substantial change in management requirements. Customary management approaches and the traditional perception on how business is done are not suitable anymore. The diversification of the overall workforce and increased intercultural contact through business activities in foreign countries created a new demand for an effective cross cultural communication (CCC) in all fields of businesses .
In many cases internationally active companies sent part of their domestic workforce abroad to e.g. build up a new production plant or subsidiary. These so called expatriates often find themselves working in a drastically changed cultural environment. The key to success for such business activities abroad demands the expatriates to overcome cultural differences and - even though this might be uncomfortable - to adjust to the new cultural environment. To vanquish the described obstacles it is important to effectively communicate despite coming from a different cultural background . To make it easier for future generations to deal with the predescribed circumstances it is essential to do enhanced research on the topic of CCC and its importance for international business.
2 Literature Overview
Research in intercultural communication started in the 1960's. The very first and still one of the most famous works is Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's "Values Orientation Theory" from 1961 . Further research on their paper has been conducted through the US-American anthropologist, cross-cultural researcher and co founder of the topic Edward T. Hall. His famous publications such as the book "Beyond Culture" first published in 1976 and his theory of "High and Low Context Cultures" are still relevant and play an important role for the basic theoretical concepts in the field of CCC . Another famous and still relevant pioneer in this field is the Dutch cultural scientist and expert Geert Hofstede. His cultural dimensions theory (1980) - which is based on the theoretical framework of Kluckhohn, Strodtbeck and Hall - is the framework for most of today's publications in the field of CCC. With his work on several models and theories he made a huge contribution to this field of science . Further advances and research has been performed by the Dutch scientist Fons Trompenaars. His main contribution is the advancement of Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory in 1993 . In 1990 the Israeli psychologist Shalom H. Schwartz continued the research of the German psychiatrist Ernst Boesch who tried to interconnect psychological approaches with the theory of CCC in his in 1980 published book "Kultur und Handlung. Einführung in die Kulturpsychologie" (Cultural Psychology). The German psychologist Alexander Thomas further advanced Schwartz's and Boesch's ideas and wrote the book "Kulturstandards in der internationalen Begegnung (1991)" (Cultural Standards in international Encounters), which is mainly focusing on psychological aspects in international business . The most recent and for this paper most relevant study is the...
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Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. Toronto, USA: Anchor Books Editions.
Hills, M. D. (2002). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 's Values Orientation. Wikato: University of Wikato, New Zealand.
Hofstede, G. (1997). The Hofstede Centre. Accessed January, 20th 2014 from The Hofstede Centre: http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html
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