Maritime Explorations: 15th-18th Centuries
What were the motives and means of maritime explorations?
Search for resources and land suitable for cash crops
Search for commodities: spices, silk, gold, ivory, slaves etc. Search for converts to Christianity
Navigational technology and knowledge of the wind (monsoon) Maritime and land-based empires (Trading post empires)
Was European expansion in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean worlds different? Territorial empires in the Americas: the Spaniards and the Portuguese Settler colonies of the French, English, the Dutch in the Caribbean and North America Cartaz- way to tax trade (Portugal (European))
Europeans had an advantage
How the colonial Empires in the Americas were built and sustained? Conquer and Consolidation (Colonial administration)
Mining: encomienda, the tribute system
Agricultural production: the plantations system and the problem of labor
How did Europeans respond to labor shortages in the Americas? Slavery
Encomiend- was a legal system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor and autonomy Mita System-
Slaves from Africa
How did the Colonial Society evolve in the Americas?
Mixed or multi-cultural societies
Social Hiearchy: immigrants, creoles mulatto’s zambos, slaves and conquered peoples Gender and sexuality
North American colonies: Less with mixing with indigenous peoples: English racism
Chapter 25: Early-Modern Africa:
What major comparable social, political and economic institutions/ structures do you identify in early modern Africa?
What major changes occurred in the state formation in Africa? Sub-Saharan African trade give rise to imperial states relying on resources from trade
Exports: gold, ivory, and slaves
Imports: textiles and spices
Maritime trade gave rise to regional kingdoms relying on trade and European merchant mariners
Exports-gold and slaves
Imports- weapons and textiles
How does Europeans presence in Africa compare with their presence in the New World? Europeans wasn’t interested in colonizing but even if they were the could NOT do it Alliance and tribute system in central and East Africa
Settlers colonized in southern Africa: the Dutch and British
What were the cultural consequences of Sub-Haran and maritime commerce in Africa? Islam in Africa
Belief in power spirits directly intervening in human affairs Syncretic Islam: blending Islam with indigenous beliefs and customs The Fulani reaction
CHRISTIANITY IN AFRICA
Blended with traditional beliefs and customs
The Antonian movement in Kongo: Donna Beatriz and her cult Missionaries reaction
What role did Africa play in the early modern world economy? Islamic slave trade: across the sub-Saharan caravan route or through the maritime route from East Africa Over a millennium, about 10 million slaves were put on market
Atlantic Slave Trade
The Triangular Trade- European traded for slaves, Slaves traded in Caribbean for sugar or molasses America produce traded in Europe
The networks of commodity exchange that connected Africa, Europe,
and the Americas Middle Passage- The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed from Europe to African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. Voyages on the Middle Passage were a large financial undertaking.
Maroon Community- were escaped slaves in the West Indies, Central America, South America, and North America, who formed...
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