UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATION IN TANZANIAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF TANZANIA PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (TPDC)
Reg. no 2008-06-00931
Supervisor: Dr. L.M . Mboma
1.1 Background Information to the Study
The early 20th century witnessed the emergence of training and development as a profession, resulting in the creation of training associations and societies, the advent of the assembly line requiring greater specificity in training, and the dramatic training requirements of the world wars. Important groups forming during this period include the American Management Association in 1923 (which began as the National Association of Corporation Schools in 1913), and the National Management Association in 1956 (which began as the National Association of Foremen in 1925). At the same time, Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced the assembly line at his Highland Park, Michigan, plant. Because the assembly line created an even greater division of labor, along with an unprecedented need for precision and teamwork, job tasks and assignments required more highly specific and focused training than ever before (William, 2003). The enormous production needs of the World War I and II created a heavy influx of new workers with little or no industrial education or skills to the workplace (Madison, 2003), thereby necessitating massive training efforts that were at once fast and effective. In particular, the heavy demand for shipping construction during World War I resulted in a tenfold increase in workers trained on-site by instructors who were supervisors using a simple four-step method: show, tell, do, check. During World War II, large numbers of trained industrial workers left their jobs to enter the armed forces, severely limiting the organizational support normally provided by coworkers in training their replacements. Heavy demands were placed on foremen and supervisors, and the training within industry (TWI) service was formed to train supervisors as instructors. Job instruction training (JIT) was employed to train defense-plant supervisors in instructing new employees in necessary job skills as quickly as possible. Other programs included job relations training (JRT), job methods training (JMT), and job safety training (JST). During this time, the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) was formed (Jones, 1995). By the end of World War II most companies and organizations realized the importance of training and development as a fundamental organizational tool. Training programs that originally were developed in response to national crises had become established corporate activities with long-term strategies working toward improving employee performance. In the mid1950s gaming simulations gained popularity. Trainers began giving serious consideration to the efficacy of their training programs, and interest in the evaluation of training programs grew. The 1960s witnessed an explosion of training methods as the number of corporations using assessment centers increased from one to 100 by the end of the decade. Government programs to train young men for industrial jobs, such as the Job Development Program 1965 and the Job Corps, were initiated to improve the conditions of the economically disadvantaged. New methods included training laboratories, sensitivity training, programmed instruction, performance appraisal and evaluation, needs assessments, management training, and organizational development. By the 1970s a new sense of professionalism emerged in the training community. Training programs grew dramatically, and the ASTD produced the Professional Development Manual for Trainers. With the rise of organizational development, the focus of training shifted away from the individual and toward the organization as a whole. Technological advances in...
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