THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
At present reality in the Philippine system of education, most especially in the teaching of reading skill, educators are still striving to search for more effective and efficient ways, strategies or practices that would appropriately suit the learning wants and needs of the student. A competent teacher should prepare and present innovative and effective classroom strategies so that students would continue abiding in the stated goals of a certain educational practice. Dunn, Griggs, Olson and Beasly (1995) indicate that good matching in student's learning styles with educational interventions or teaching strategies/practices is beneficial to their academic/school achievement. The inconsistencies of these may somehow create conflicts and no good outcome in student's learning. A constant struggle for teachers in all disciplines of education is ensure that students not only understand the concepts and skills that they are taught, but also that they can then analyze and apply those tools to different situations that arise. In order for students to be successful in school and in life, teachers needs to constantly revise and adapt their teaching practices based on new methods that are introduced in order to ensure that students are engaged invested, and increasing their academic achievements. The role of an educator is to make tough decisions that guide the effective delivery if instruction to all students, front row or back, eager or reluctant (Crockett & Kauffman 1998, p. 489). In order to improve the academic performance of all students, teachers need to use effective strategies. According to Strasser (1964), teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson or lessons which include structure, desired learner behavior, in terms of the goals of instruction and an outline of tactics necessary to implement the strategy. Effective teaching is only possible if teachers would take into account the understanding of the complexity of classroom teaching and learn to acquire strategies that will enable them to continually assess and enhance the teaching-learning effectiveness. Therefore, the application of appropriate teaching strategies and techniques help the students build up their cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills. Teaching techniques are the means to teaching and learning how to employ them in the teaching while the learning process itself is called strategies. Teaching strategies are vital because the tenet of teaching and classroom instruction cannot be successfully achieved with techniques or methods alone. Discovering the most preferred Teacher-Directed Strategies in reading of the selected high school students and how these strategies affect their reading comprehension is the main purpose of the study.
Background of the Study
Education for all is an eternal concept. As early as the 1760s and 1770s, the idea that there should be a free system of education that would provide for a general diffusion of knowledge cultivate new learning, and nurture the democratic ideals of government was developed (Aexander & Alexander, 1998 p. 23). Horace Mann (1874) who saw education as a natural right believes that this free system of education should include everyone. Article XIV, Section 1 of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines states the provision that "The State shall protect and promote rights of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make education accessible to all."
"The quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teacher"(McKinsey & Company, 2007). In fact, a wide body of research shows that the single greatest factor affecting student achievement is classroom instruction and strategies. In one study, Mortimore and Sammons (1987) found that classroom instruction has more impact on student learning that any other factor. As McKinsey & Company concluded in their study of the...
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