This report will analyse some of the theories, principles and models in education and training. I will report on how these can be applied, and how they can enable inclusive learning, through exploring my own research. The report will also show how learners preferences should be taken into account as per of inclusive teaching and learning.
A – Analyse theories, principles and models of learning and models of learning preferences Wilson, L (2014) has shown that there are three main schools of theory: The Behaviourist School
The Cognitivist School
The Humanist School
The Table below shows the schools, their theories and key individual theorists BEHAVIOURIST
Individuals respond to stimuli, things seen and done around them. Repetitively being shown a subject in order to learn about it Pavlov (1849 – 1936) stimulus – response theory used on animals, a bell was rang before eat feed, the animals salivated, showing a recognition. The issue with this is problem solving – how could a behaviourist think logically, when they follow responses. Open to stereotyping COGNITIVIST
Learning is acquiring knowledge through thought, senses, and experience. Individuals follow mental processes – they think, remember and process information. J Bruner (b.1915) - To instruct someone… is not a matter of getting him to commit results to mind. Rather, it is to teach him to participate in the process that makes possible the establishment of knowledge. We teach a subject not to produce little living libraries on that subject, but rather to get a student to think mathematically for himself, to consider matters as an historian does, to take part in the process of knowledge-getting. Knowing is a process not a product. (1966: 72) - The Process of Education: Towards a theory of instruction (1966) The issues here could be that some learners may not have the knowledge to start with. Is this to say they should not be given the opportunity to learn? HUMANIST
Individuals should search for meanings in order to develop. Development is in stages , cited by Abraham Maslow ( hierarchy of needs) A Maslow (1908 – 1970) – Individuals needs to have basic needs met before they can move onto the next stages of learning, This theory may come into problems if the learner has personal issues in the middle of their learning. Does the tutor go back to the beginning, therefore losing their ‘flow’ as they deal with individuals personal issues on a regular basis?
B – Explain ways in which theories, principles and models of learning can be applied to teaching, learning and assessment Wallace, s (2011 pg. 92) states that ‘to some extent, learning theory is about whether it is the learner or the learning that is important; whether learning is to be valued as a means to an end, or as an end in itself and which is the most value’. The variety of different learning theories could be used in lessons. Within my own teaching of the unemployed, I use aspects of the behaviourist school, as they play role play interviews, asking the same or similar questions to build up a confident answer and a natural flow to questions asked. I use the cognitivist school with learners to ensure that we utilise their past experiences and knowledge of receiving and giving good customer service, so that they show a knowledge of customer expectations. The humanist school is applied at the beginning of the course, when I ensure that the learners have their bus passes, their interview clothes, and their knowledge of their next sign on date with their job centre advisor. By making sure that these are covered at the beginning of the course, the learners feel more comfortable. Throughout the course I use formative assessments in the shape of recaps, quizzes, presentations, learning mats, and the workbooks that must be completed in order to gain the qualification. There are a number of workbooks that are marked by me as part of the summative assessments, and feedback is given during and...
Bibliography: Alan Chapman. Www. Businessballs.com/maslow.htm. Accessed 16.2.2014
Gravells, A. (2012). Preparing to teach in the lifelong learning Sector. 5th ed. London. Sage Learning Matters. Accessed 16.2.2014, 20.6.2014
Petty, G. (2014) Teaching today, a practical guide. 3rd ed. Cheltenham. Nelson Thornes Ltd – Accessed 22.6.2014
Reece, I, Walker, S (2003) Teaching, Training and learning a practical guide. 5th ed. Sunderland. Business Education Publishers Ltd. Accessed 22.6.2014
Smith, M.K. (2002) ‘Jerome S. Bruner and the process of education’, the encyclopaedia of informal education. [http://infed.org/mobi/jerome-bruner-and-the-process-of-education/
J. Bruner - The Process of Education: Towards a theory of instruction (1966)
Vizard, D. (2007). How to manage behaviour in Further Education. 2nd ed. London. Sage Publications Ltd - Accessed 16.2.2014
Wallace, S. (2011) Teaching, Tutoring and Training in the lifelong learning sector. Exeter. Learning Matters Ltd - Accessed 16.6.2014
Wilson, L. (2014) Practical Teaching, A Guide to teaching in the education and training sector. Andover, Hampshire. Cengage Learning. – Accessed 16.6.2014
Please join StudyMode to read the full document