Students' Learning StylesLearning is a complex process of acquiring knowledge or skills involving a learner's biological characteristics/senses (physiological dimension); personality characteristics such as attention, emotion, motivation, and curiosity (affective dimension); information processing styles such as logical analysis or gut feelings (cognitive dimension); and psychological/individual differences (psychological dimension) (Dunn, Beaudry, & Klavas, 1989). Due to the multiples dimensions of differences in each learner, there have been continuing research interests in learning styles. Some 21 models of learning styles are cited in the literature (Curry, 1983) including the Kolb learning preference model (Kolb, 1984), Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence (Gardner, 1983), and the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicators (Myers & Briggs, 1995). The basic premise of learning style research is that different students learn differently and students experience higher level of satisfaction and learning outcomes when there is a fit between a learner's learning style and a teaching style. This study uses the physiological dimension of the study of learning styles, which focus on what senses are used for learning. A popular typology for the physiological dimension of the learning styles is VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic) (Drago & Wagner, 2004, p. 2). 1)
Visual: visual learners like to be provided demonstrations and can learn through descriptions. They like to use lists to maintain pace and organize their thoughts. They remember faces but often forget names. They are distracted by movement or action but noise usually does not bother them. 2)
Aural: aural learners learn by listening. They like to be provided with aural instructions. They enjoy aural discussions and dialogues and prefer to work out problems by talking. They are easily distracted by noise. 3)
Read/write: read/write learners are note takers. They do best...
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