1. A Likert scale (/ˈlɪkərt/) is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires. It is the most widely used approach to scaling responses in survey research, such that the term is often used interchangeably with rating scale, or more accurately the Likert-type scale. One of the most common scale types is a Likert scale. A Likert scale is commonly used to measure attitudes, knowledge, perceptions, values, and behavioral changes. A Likert-type scale involves a series of statements that respondents may choose from in order to rate their responses to evaluative questions
2. Data from Likert scales and continuous (e.g. 1-10) rating scales are quantitative. Allows you to measure their feeling on a scale of 1 to 5.
3. The first question for the designer, following the identification of an instructional goal, is “What exactly would learners be doing if they were accomplishing the goal successfully?”
4. You can usually spot a verbal information goal by the verb that is used. Often the learner must “state,” “list,” or “describe.” It is assumed that the information to be stated or listed will be taught in the instruction; therefore, the task for the learner is to store the information in memory during the instruction and remember it for the test or when needed for some related task.
5. Goal Statement Includes:
a. who learners are
b. what learners will do
c. how demonstrate correct performance (tools/context)
d. how will take to other classes
6. Learner Analysis: What need to know about learner?
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
What variables in this population will affect achievement?
Modify strategies to enhance learning
Age of learners?
We conduct a learner’s analysis to learn about our students or learners and to come up with strategies to help in their learning. 7. Entry Level skills/pre-exiting skill helps you know what the learner knows so you can plan your strategies.
8. Assessment to measure prior knowledge.
a. entry level skills test
b. pre test
c. practice test
9. The Three Parts of a Mager Performance-Based Learning Objective According to Mager, a learning objective should ideally include the following three components: A performance (performed by the learner, remember)
Conditions (under which the learner shall perform the performance) Criteria (by which the performance is evaluated by another)
10.Sequencing and Structuring Learning Modules in Instructional Design The last step in the design phase is to determine program sequence and structure to ensure the learning objectives are met. A proper sequence provides the learners with a pattern of relationship so that each activity will have a definite purpose. The more meaningful the content, the easier it is to learn and, consequently, the more effective the instruction. Proper sequencing also helps to avoid inconsistencies in the content of the instruction. When material is carefully sequenced, duplication is far less likely. Indeed, the presence of duplication often indicates that the program has not been properly sequenced. Some of the techniques and considerations used in sequencing are: Job Performance Order: The learning sequence is the same as the job sequence From Simple to Complex: Objectives may be sequenced in terms of increasing complexity Critical Sequence: Objects are ordered in terms of their relative importance Known to Unknown: Familiar topics are considered before unfamiliar ones Dependent Relationship: Mastery of one objective requires prior mastery of another Supportive relationship: Transfer of learning takes place from one objective to another, usually because common elements are included in each objective. These should be placed as close together as possible so that the maximum transfer of learning can take place. Cause to Effect: Objectives are sequenced from cause to effect If there are a lot of objectives, then they should be organized into clusters which are conductive to...
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