Working Paper

Topics: Geert Hofstede, Dimension, Culture Pages: 17 (4928 words) Published: May 27, 2014

V S M 2013


by Geert Hofstede and Michael Minkov


Release May 2013
Copyright @ Geert Hofstede BV ;

Contents Page

1. Purpose of the VSM 2013: comparing national samples2
2. The VSM 2013 is not for comparing individuals3
3. The VSM 2013 is not for comparing organizations4
4. VSM 2013 scores not comparable to published scores5
5. The VSM 2013 is not a teaching tool5
6. Formulas for index calculation6
7. Reliability of the VSM 2013 9
8. Conditions for the use of the VSM 2013 10
9. History of the VSM 10
10. Comparison of the VSM 2013 with earlier versions 13 11. Translations of the VSM 2013 13
12. Submitting results for our files 14
13. References 15

1. Purpose of the VSM 2013: comparing national samples

The Values Survey Module 2013 (VSM 2013) is a 30-item paper-and-pencil questionnaire developed for comparing culturally influenced values and sentiments of similar respondents from two or more countries, or sometimes regions within countries. It allows scores to be computed on six dimensions of national culture, on the basis of four questions per dimension: thus it counts 6 x 4 = 24 content questions. The other six questions ask for demographic information: the respondent’s gender, age, education level, kind of job, present nationality, and nationality at birth.

The six dimensions measured were developed in the work of Geert Hofstede and his co-researchers, and are described extensively in the 3rd edition of Hofstede, Hofstede & Minkov, 2010. They deal with key issues in national societies, known from social anthropology and cross-cultural research..

The earliest public version of the instrument (VSM 82) covered four dimensions, derived from a comparison of subsidiaries of the IBM corporation in 40 countries. The next version (VSM 94) covered five; the additional dimension was found in a comparison of students in 23 countries using a questionnaire mainly designed by Chinese scholars (Hofstede & Bond, 1988). The sixth dimension in the present version was derived from Minkov’s analysis of the World Values Survey in up to 81 countries (Inglehart et al., 2007) and other newly available sources. For more information about the history of the VSM see Section 9 of this Manual.

The term module means that the questionnaire can be used as part of a larger instrument comparing countries on other aspects.
Research experience has shown that the answers to the 24 content questions are influenced by the nationality of the respondents. This is not to say that every respondent of nationality A gives one answer and everyone of a nationality B another, but one can expect systematic differences between the average answers from a sample with nationality A and a comparable sample from nationality B (in statistical terms, an analysis of variance on the answer scores shows a significant country effect). As the relationship is statistical, the samples per country should be of sufficient size. An ideal size for a homogeneous sample is 50 respondents. Sample sizes smaller than 20 should not be used, as outlying answers by single respondents will unduly affect the results. If samples are heterogeneous (composed of unequal sub-samples) these numbers apply to the sub-samples.

Next to nationality, answers to the 24 content questions will also reflect other characteristics of the respondents, such as their gender, age, level of education, occupation, kind of work and the point in time when they answered the questions. Therefore comparisons of countries should be based on samples of respondents who are matched on all criteria other than nationality that could...

References: Chinese Culture Connection (a team of 24 researchers, 1987)
“Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture”
Hofstede, Geert (1980)
Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values
Hofstede, Geert (1991)
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind
Hofstede, Geert (2001)
Culture’s Consequences, (Second Edition): Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations
Hofstede, Geert and Michael Harris Bond (1988)
“The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth”
Hofstede, Geert and Robert R. McCrae (2004)
“Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture”
Hofstede, Geert and Gert Jan Hofstede (2005)
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind
Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov (2010)
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind
Hofstede, Geert, Bram Neuijen, Denise Daval Ohayv and Geert Sanders
(1990) “Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases”
Hofstede, Geert, Adriana V. Garibaldi de Hilal, Sigmar Malvezzi, Betania
Tanure and Henk Vinken (2010) “Comparing regional cultures within a country: Lessons from Brazil”
Hoppe, Michael H. (1990)
A Comparative Study of Country Elites: International Differences in Work-related Values and Learning and their Implications for Management Training and Development
Inglehart, Ronald, Miguel Basañez and Alejandro Moreno (1998)
Human Values and Beliefs: A Cross-Cultural Sourcebook
Inglehart, Ronald, Miguel Basañez, Jaime Díez-Medrano, Loek Halman
and Ruud Luijkx (2004)
Human Beliefs and Values: A Cross-Cultural Sourcebook Based on the 1999-2002 Values Surveys. Mexico: Siglo XXI Editores
Inglehart, Ronald and associates (2007 and ongoing)
Minkov, Michael (2007)
What Makes Us Different and Similar: A New Interpretation of the World Values Survey and Other Cross-Cultural Data
Minkov, Michael (2011)
Cultural Differences in a Globalizing World
Minkov, Michael (2013)
Cross-Cultural Analysis: The Science and Art of Comparing the World’s Modern Societies and Their Cultures
Minkov, Michael and Hofstede, Geert (2010)
“Long- versus short-term orientation: new perspectives”
Minkov, Michael and Hofstede, Geert (2011)
“The evolution of Hofstede’s doctrine”
Minkov, Michael and Hofstede, Geert (2012)
“Hofstede’s fifth dimension: New evidence from the World Values Survey”
Van Vugt, Ronnie G.M.A. (2006)
Culture’s Consequences Re-examined
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