A Quarter Century of "Culture's Consequences": A Review of Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede's Cultural Values Framework
Author(s): Bradley L. Kirkman, Kevin B. Lowe and Cristina B. Gibson Source: Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2006), pp. 285-320 Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals
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? 2006 Academy International
Bradley L. Kirkman',
Kevin B. Lowe2 and
Cristina B. Gibson3
Bradley L Kirkman, Department of
Management, Mays Business School, Texas
A&M University, 4221 TAMU, College
Station, TX 77843-4221, USA.
Tel: + 1 979 845 8813;
Fax: + 1 979 845 9641;
Received: 22 August 2002
Revised: 8 May 2005
Accepted: 17 May 2005
Online publication date: 4 May 2006
(Sage, 1980) was published,researchers
culturalvaluesframework a wide varietyof empiricalstudies.We review180 in
studies publishedin 40 businessand psychologyjournals two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empiricallyverifiableabout Hofstede'sculturalvalues framework.We discuss researchand make recommendationsfor
limitationsin the Hofstede-inspired
who use Hofstede'sframeworkin the future.
Studies(2006) 37, 285-320.
Research using a variety of frameworks has shown that national cultural values are related to workplace behaviors, attitudes and other organizational outcomes (e.g., Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961; Hall, 1976; Hofstede, 1980a; Trompenaars, 1993; Schwartz, 1994; Ronen and Shenkar, 1985). Perhaps the most influential of cultural classifications is that of Geert Hofstede. Over two decades have passed since the publication of Culture's Consequences: Values (Hofstede, 1980a),
thousands of empirical studies; however, a compreheninspiring sive review of the impact of Hofstede's frameworkis lacking.' To fill this gap, we summarize and synthesize empirical research published between January 1980 and June 2002 that has applied Hofstede's framework to organizations. We focus on Hofstede's framework rather than others, given...
Citations: Hofstede, 2001). Trompenaars (1993, iii), who has a competing
framework, credits Hofstede 'for opening management 's eyes to the
inform future research, rather than provide an in-depth discussion
of Hofstede 's original study, a critique (e.g., Schwartz, 1994; Smith
and Bond, 1999; McSweeney, 2002; Smith, 2002), or a replication
This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Tue, 1 Oct 2013 10:01:32 AM
A quarter century of Culture 'sConsequences
(e.g., Punnett and Withane (1990); Shackleton and
All, 1990; Merritt, 2000; Spector et al., 2001a).
example, most researchers focused exclusively on
individualism-collectivism (IND-COL) at the individual level of analysis (e.g., Triandis, 1995; Earley
and Gibson, 1998; Oyserman et al., 2002).
to the individual level, Hofstede 'ignores everything.., but the culture level comparisons ' (Smith,
2002, 123), thus missing an opportunity to draw
Hofstede (1980a, 25) defined culture as 'the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes
the members of one human group from another '.
ingroup to look after them, and in exchange for
that they feel they owe absolute loyalty to it '(Hofstede, 1980b, 45)
and organizations is distributed unequally ' (1980b,
the quality of life, or people ' (1980b, 46) and
FEMdefined as the opposite of MAS.Michael Harris
Bond (Chinese Culture Connection, 1987) and
later Hofstede and Bond (1988) developed a fifth
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