Cross-Cultural Communication

Topics: Culture, Cross-cultural communication, Individualism Pages: 9 (2737 words) Published: November 6, 2013
Cross-Cultural Communication

1. Definition of Cross-Cultural Communication
Cross-cultural communication means the domestic communication between people and foreigners, but it also implies communication between the people which have different languages and cultural backgrounds. It is a field of study, which focusing on how people from different cultural context communication in similar and different ways, and how tough they endeavor to communicate across the different culture. 2. Barriers of effective cross-cultural communication

1) Noise
It makes the lack of attention and interest, adds distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. 2) Personal barriers
Psychological distance
The use of jargon. Highly complicated, unfamiliar and technical terms; Emotional barriers and taboos. Some people may find it is difficult to express their emotions and some topics may be completely 'off-limits' or taboo Difference in perceptions and viewpoints.

3) Physical barriers
Ecological control
Not being able to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general body language can make cross-cultural communication less effective; Physical disabilities like speech difficulties, hearing problems; Cultural differences. The standards of social interaction vary greatly among different cultures, as do the way how emotions are expressed. For instance, the concept of personal space varies among cultures and between different social circumstances. Proxemics

4) Semantic barriers
Semantics Language: difficulty and differences in understanding unfamiliar accents. Inference: Prejudices and expectations which may lead to false stereotyping or assumptions. People often hear the thing they expect to hear rather than what is said actually and jump into false conclusions.

3. How can they be surmounted
1Eliminate or reduce noises. Detect sources of the noise. If it’s possible to eliminate the noise, try to remove it. For example, the speakers can reduce outside noises by shutting down windows or moving toward an quiet inner area in the building. The speakers should determine the importance of the conversation in considering whether to terminate the noise. It may not be totally necessary to completely remove the sources of the annoying noise.

2Raise volume in speech. The speaker can raise her voice if she believes the listener cannot hear her well. If the listener has difficulty understanding the speaker due to noise, she can request the speaker talk louder. To overcome a noise barrier, increase the volume of the conversation so that the noise no longer significantly impedes the discussion.

3Listen actively. The listener should try attempt listen actively. It means paying undivided attention to all the speaker's words .It does not means merely to hear what the speaker has to say, but to interpret it from the point of the speaker's view as well. Frequently, noise is only just a subjective barrier to the conversation. The listeners are distracted by the noise, but the the noise is no longer a significant impediment to discussions. 4Use straightforward, clear language words. Use clear, straightforward language, you are to prevent unnecessary confusion and misunderstanding. Avoid using slang, idioms, and other language that may lead to misinterpret. It may be that lengthy statements with complex, multi-syllable words would be distorted by no. In cases where the noise is mild moderation to nuisance and not a real communication barrier to the communication, the speaker can be improved by using a clear, straightforward language to convey the information. Use familiar words in place of the unfamiliar. Use concrete words in place of the abstract. Use short words in place of long .single words in place of several. Theory One

Face negotiation theory
Face negotiation theory is a theory initially proposed by Stella Ting-Toomey in the year 1985 to understand exactly how different cultures throughout the world respond to...

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Kim, M.-S. (2010). Conversational constraints theory. Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_constraints_theory
Min-Sun, K. a. (1997). The Effects of Psychological Gender Orientations on the Perceived Salience of Conversational Constra. A Journal of Research .
Putnam, L. L. (1987). Conflict and negotiation. Handbook of organizational, 549-599.
Stevens, M. J. (2012). Passive-aggression Among the Latter-day Saints. Sunstone Issue, 170.
Ting-Toomey. (2005). The Matrix of Face: An Updated Face-Negotiation Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 71-92.
Ting-Toomey, S. &. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural. International Journal of, 187-225.
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